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Full text of "The manufacture and properties of iron and steel"

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material as fast as it is made,, so that double handling of stock may be avoided. Such handling often costs more than the inspection bureau receives for its .Work, and it is certainly an equitable request that some action be taken to remedy this loss.
In 1888 the chemical societies of the world investigated the methods of steel analysis. They first condemned the method of carbon determination in general use and then approved certain other methods. Following the plan mapped out and under a system of duplicate determinations, one chemist reported on one sample 0.45 per cent, of carbon, while another reported 0.50 per cent. On a second steel the results varied from .15 to .18 per cent. In the case of phosphorus the English chemists reported .078 per cent, on one sample and the Swedes .102 per cent.
In an investigation by Wahlberg,* comparing the work of four laboratories of high repute, different chemists found the carbon in one soft steel to be from .118 to .191 per cent.; in a slightly harder steel from 200 to .254 per cent.; in a still harder steel from .590 to .692 per cent., and in a spring steel from .880 to 1.060 per cent. In color work the higher steels varied as much as 23 points, while the difference between the results by color and by combustion were as much as .185 per cent, in the hard steels.
In 1904 an investigation was carried on by the Cambria Steel Co, Johnstown, Pa., by sending drillings to twenty-three American steel works laboratories.   As was to be expected, there was a wide variation.    Carbon ran from .50 to .60 per cent, by color and .0. to   59 in a few combustion determinations.    Silicon varied from 078 to .095; phosphorus from .093 to .108; sulphur from .032 to '042; and manganese from .68 to .87 per cent.    Omitting m the case of each of the elements the lowest two and the highest two determinations, so as to have only nineteen results out of twenty-three, the carbon varied from .53 to .59 per cent.; the silicon from 080 to .093 ; the phosphorus from .099 to .104; the sulphur from 037 to .041; and manganese from .68 to .77 per cent, '   In spite of these facts, there are engineers who issue specifications giving an allowable range of only .10 per cent, of carbon, say